This marked the beginning of the Crusades. Those who joined the armed pilgrimage wore a cross as a symbol of the Church. The Crusades set the stage for several religious knightly military orders, including the Knights Templarthe Teutonic Knights, and the Hospitallers.
Map of the Eastern Mediterranean in The remnant of the Byzantine Empire is visible in the west; the nascent Seljuq Empire and Fatimid Egypt are shown in green. The Islamic prophet Muhammad founded Islam in the Arabian Peninsula and had united much of Arabia into a single polity by his death in Arab power expanded rapidly in the 7th and 8th centuries largely by military conquest.
Jerusalem was taken from the Byzantine Empire after a siege in Pilgrimages by Catholics to sacred sites were permitted, Christian residents in Muslim territories were given Dhimmi status, legal rights, and legal protection. These Christians were allowed to maintain churches, and marriages between faiths were not uncommon.
The victory over the Byzantine army at the Battle of Manzikert was once considered a pivotal event by historians but is now regarded as only one further step in the expansion of the Great Seljuk Empire into Anatolia. The Christian Church split along Latin Orthodox lines in after centuries of disagreement leading to a permanent division called the East—West Schism.
Beginning around and continuing during the First Crusade, the Investiture Controversy was a power struggle between Church and state in medieval Europe over whether the Catholic Church or the Holy Roman Empire held the right to appoint church officials and other clerics.
The result was intense piety and an increased interest in religious affairs amongst the general population in Catholic Europe and religious propaganda by the Papacy advocating a just war to reclaim Palestine from the Muslims. Participation in a crusade was seen as a form of penance that could counterbalance sin.
Rhineland massacres Inat the Council of PiacenzaByzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos requested military aid from Pope Urban IIprobably in the form of a small body of mercenary reinforcements he could direct and control.
Alexios had restored the Empire's finances and authority, but he still faced a number of foreign enemies, particularly the migrating Turks who had colonised the sparsely populated areas of Anatolia. Many historians consider that Urban also hoped that aiding the Eastern Church would lead to its reunion with the Western under his leadership.
Only survived an ambush by the Turks at the Civetot. However, members of the high aristocracy from France, western Germany, the Low countries, and Italy were drawn to the venture, commanding their own military contingents in loose, fluid arrangements based on bonds of lordship, family, ethnicity, and language.
He was rivalled by the relatively poor but martial Bohemond of Taranto and his nephew Tancred from the Norman community of southern Italy. They were joined by Godfrey of Bouillon and his brother Baldwin I of Jerusalem in leading a loose conglomerate from LorraineLotharingiaand Germany.
Having already destroyed the earlier People's Crusade, the over-confident Sultan left the city to resolve a territorial dispute, enabling its capture in after a Crusader siege and a Byzantine naval assault.
This marked a high point in Latin and Greek co-operation and also the start of Crusader attempts to take advantage of political and religious disunity in the Muslim world: Crusader envoys were sent to Egypt seeking an alliance.
The Normans resisted for hours before the arrival of the main army caused a Turkish withdrawal. After this, the nomadic Seljuks avoided the Crusade.
Instead, Aleppo and Damascus had competing rulers. Eventually, Bohemond persuaded a tower guard in the city to open a gate and the Crusaders entered, massacring the Muslim and many Christian Greeks, Syrian and Armenian inhabitants. The sultan of Baghdad raised a force to recapture the city led by the Iraqi general Kerbogha.
The Byzantines provided no assistance to the Crusaders' defence of the city because the deserting Stephen of Blois told them the cause was lost. Losing numbers through desertion and starvation in the besieged city, the Crusaders attempted to negotiate surrender, but this was rejected by Kerbogha, who wanted to destroy them permanently.
Morale within the city was boosted when Peter Bartholomew claimed to have discovered the Holy Lance. Bohemond recognised that the only option now was for open combat, and he launched a counterattack against the besiegers.
Despite superior numbers, Kerbogha's army, which was divided into factions and surprised by the commitment and dedication of the Franks, retreated and abandoned the siege.
This ended only when news arrived that the Fatimid Egyptians had taken Jerusalem from the Turks, and it became imperative to attack before the Egyptians could consolidate their position.
Bohemond remained in Antioch, retaining the city despite his pledge that this would return to Byzantine control, while Raymond led the remaining Crusader army rapidly south along the coast to Jerusalem.
However, the arrival of craftsman and supplies transported by the Genoese to Jaffa tilted the balance in their favour. For two days the Crusaders massacred the inhabitants and pillaged the city.
Historians now believe the accounts of the numbers killed have been exaggerated, but this narrative of massacre did much to cement the Crusaders' reputation for barbarism. This relief force retreated to Egypt, with the vizier fleeing by ship. Of the other princes, only Tancred remained with the ambition to gain his own princedom.
This may be in part due to a reluctance to relate Muslim failure, but it is more likely to be the result of cultural misunderstanding. Al-Afdal and the Muslim world mistook the Crusaders for the latest in a long line of Byzantine mercenaries rather than religiously motivated warriors intent on conquest and settlement.
Even the Turks were divided, with rival rulers in Damascus and Aleppo. In Baghdad the Seljuk sultan vied with an Abbasid caliph in a Mesopotamian struggle. This gave the Franks a crucial opportunity to consolidate without any pan-Islamic counter-attack.The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The most commonly known Crusades are the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule, but the term "Crusades" is also applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns.
Were the crusades caused primarily by religious devotion or by desire for political and economic gain? Christians and Muslims fought in a series of wars for nearly years. The drive to gain control of the Holy Land was the biggest motivation.
With regards to their target, crusades were also called against the Muslims of the Iberian peninsula, the pagan peoples of the Baltic region, the Mongols, political opponents of the Papacy and heretics (such as the Cathars or the Hussites).
The Crusades were military expeditions of Christian Europe in the 12th and 13th centuries for the recovery of the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks. The religious motivation for the Crusades is the one most people know about: Europe was predominantly Christian and ruled by Christian governments while the Middle East was predominantly Muslim.
The religious motivation for the Crusades is the one most people know about: Europe was predominantly Christian and ruled by Christian governments while the Middle East was predominantly Muslim.