The Mind-Body Problem There is an age-old problem in philosophy known as the "mind-body problem. Are your thoughts, feelings, perceptions, sensations, and wishes things that happen in addition to all the physical processes in your brain, or are they themselves just some of those physical processes? This should be interesting to you for a couple of reasons: If materialism is true, then you are a physical object -- an organism.
What is a Real Distinction? Accordingly, a mode requires a substance to exist and not just the concurrence of God.
Being sphere shaped is a mode of an extended substance. For example, a sphere requires an object extended in three dimensions in order to exist: But a substance can be understood to exist alone without requiring any other creature to exist.
For example, a stone can exist all by itself. That is, its existence is not dependent upon the existence of minds or other bodies; and, a stone can exist without being any particular size or shape. Whether or not they actually exist apart is another issue entirely. Why a Real Distinction?
A question one might ask is: For Descartes the payoff is twofold. This section investigates both of these motivating factors. Descartes goes on to explain how, because of this, these people will not pursue moral virtue without the prospect of an afterlife with rewards for virtue and punishments for vice.
Hence, irreligious people will be forced to believe in the prospect of an afterlife. He stops short of demonstrating that the soul is actually immortal. Yet, even though the real distinction argument does not go this far, it does, according to Descartes, provide a sufficient foundation for religion, since the hope for an afterlife now has a rational basis and is no longer a mere article of faith.
Notwithstanding this convoluted array of positions, Descartes understood one thesis to stand at the heart of the entire tradition: For this reason, a brief look at how final causes were supposed to work is in order.
Descartes understood all scholastics to maintain that everything was thought to have a final cause that is the ultimate end or goal for the sake of which the rest of the organism was organized. For example, in the case of a bird, say, the swallow, the substantial form of swallowness was thought to organize matter for the sake of being a swallow species of substance.
Accordingly, any dispositions a swallow might have, such as the disposition for making nests, would then also be explained by means of this ultimate goal of being a swallow; that is, swallows are disposed for making nests for the sake of being a swallow species of substance.
This explanatory scheme was also thought to work for plants and inanimate natural objects.
But what makes it especially clear that my idea of gravity was taken largely from the idea I had of the mind is the fact that I thought that gravity carried bodies toward the centre of the earth as if it had some knowledge of the centre within itself AT VII On this pre-Newtonian account, a characteristic goal of all bodies was to reach its proper place, namely, the center of the earth.
But, how can a stone know anything?Descartes and John Searle Mind and Body Debate. Topics: Leadership, Mind-Body Debate Philosophers have been debating for centuries the relationship between the mind and the body and whether they are separate entities, or if they are one.
The Mind-Body Problem. An answer to the debate between materialism and dualism is an answer to the question, What am I? If materialism is true, then you are a physical object -- an organism. It is not clear whether Descartes thinks minds exist inside space or outside space, so our interpretation of Descartes' dualism will remain neutral.
Descartes and John Searle Mind and Body Debate. Topics: Leadership, Mind-Body Debate Philosophers have been debating for centuries the relationship between the mind and the body and whether they are separate entities, or if they are one.
The identity theory of mind holds that states and processes of the mind are identical to states and processes of the brain.
Descartes thought that consciousness is immaterial. It was sometimes objected that sensation statements are incorrigible whereas statements about brains are corrigible. The Mind-Body Problem: An Opinionated.
René Descartes 1.
René Descartes While the great philosophical distinction between mind and body in western thought can be traced to the Greeks, it is to the seminal work of René Descartes () [see figure 1], French mathematician, philosopher, and physiologist, that we owe the first systematic account of the mind/body relationship.
Mind-Body Debate: Imagined Dialogue between Descartes and Searle Descartes: I doubt the existence of the material world, but cannot doubt the existence of oneself as a thinking thing since one's thoughts belong to a nonspatial substance that is distinct from matter.