The Seljuk Turks were originally an Asian horde which, like the Huns of earlier times, had penetrated far into the West. By the eleventh century the Seljuk Turks controlled much of the Levant. With Persia in their control, including Baghdad, the capital of the Moslem world, they presented a terrifying prospect:
Map of the Eastern Mediterranean in The remnant of the Byzantine Empire is visible in the west; the nascent Seljuq Empire and Fatimid Egypt are shown in green. The Islamic prophet Muhammad founded Islam in the Arabian Peninsula and had united much of Arabia into a single polity by his death in Arab power expanded rapidly in the 7th and 8th centuries largely by military conquest.
Jerusalem was taken from the Byzantine Empire after a siege in Pilgrimages by Catholics to sacred sites were permitted, Christian residents in Muslim territories were given Dhimmi status, legal rights, and legal protection.
These Christians were allowed to maintain churches, and marriages between faiths were not uncommon. The victory over the Byzantine army at the Battle of Manzikert was once considered a pivotal event by historians but is now regarded as only one further step in the expansion of the Great Seljuk Empire into Anatolia.
The Christian Church split along Latin Orthodox lines in after centuries of disagreement leading to a permanent division called the East—West Schism.
Beginning around and continuing during the First Crusade, the Investiture Controversy was a power struggle between Church and state in medieval Europe over whether the Catholic Church or the Holy Roman Empire held the right to appoint church officials and other clerics. The result was intense piety and an increased interest in religious affairs amongst the general population in Catholic Europe and religious propaganda by the Papacy advocating a just war to reclaim Palestine from the Muslims.
Participation in a crusade was seen as a form of penance that could counterbalance sin. Rhineland massacres Inat the Council of PiacenzaByzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos requested military aid from Pope Urban IIprobably in the form of a small body of mercenary reinforcements he could direct and control.
Many historians consider that Urban also hoped that aiding the Eastern Church would lead to its reunion with the Western under his leadership. Only survived an ambush by the Turks at the Civetot. However, members of the high aristocracy from France, western Germany, the Low countries, and Italy were drawn to the venture, commanding their own military contingents in loose, fluid arrangements based on bonds of lordship, family, ethnicity, and language.
He was rivalled by the relatively poor but martial Bohemond of Taranto and his nephew Tancred from the Norman community of southern Italy.
They were joined by Godfrey of Bouillon and his brother Baldwin I of Jerusalem in leading a loose conglomerate from LorraineLotharingiaand Germany. This marked a high point in Latin and Greek co-operation and also the start of Crusader attempts to take advantage of political and religious disunity in the Muslim world: Crusader envoys were sent to Egypt seeking an alliance.
The Normans resisted for hours before the arrival of the main army caused a Turkish withdrawal. After this, the nomadic Seljuks avoided the Crusade.
Instead, Aleppo and Damascus had competing rulers. Eventually, Bohemond persuaded a tower guard in the city to open a gate and the Crusaders entered, massacring the Muslim and many Christian Greeks, Syrian and Armenian inhabitants.
The sultan of Baghdad raised a force to recapture the city led by the Iraqi general Kerbogha.A History of the Crusades Vol. 2.
|The Real History of the Crusades||Calm returned and Christians had generally been permitted to visit the sacred places in the Holy Land untilwhen the Seljuk Turks assailed the Byzantines, defeating them at the Battle of Manzikertand conquered Jerusalem from the Egyptian Fatimids the same year. They were not friendly to Christian pilgrims, in contrast to how the Fatimids had been, and soon pilgrims came under threat of robbery or even death as they were no longer welcome.|
|Middle East Geography Quizzes - Fun Map Games||Map of the Eastern Mediterranean in The remnant of the Byzantine Empire is visible in the west; the nascent Seljuq Empire and Fatimid Egypt are shown in green.|
the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East, (v. 2) [Steven Runciman] on heartoftexashop.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This volume describes the Frankish states of Outremer from the accession of King Baldwin I to .
Christian History Institute (CHI) provides church history resources and self-study material and publishes the quarterly Christian History Magazine. Our aim is to make Christian history enjoyable and applicable to the widest possible audience. Includes: The first hundred years (2nd ed.
); The later Crusades, – (); The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries (); The art and architecture of the Crusader states (); The impact of the Crusades on the Near East (); The impact of the Crusades on Europe ().
Tolan, John; Veinstein, Gilles; Henry, Laurens ().
The Crusader states, also known as Outremer, were a number of mostly 12th- and 13th-century feudal Christian states created by Western European crusaders in Asia Minor, Greece and the Holy Land, and during the Northern Crusades in the eastern Baltic area. The name also refers to other territorial gains (often small and short-lived) made by medieval Christendom against Muslim and pagan adversaries.
Crusades Overview. First Crusade. Third Crusade. Venetians Take Constantinople. Saladin. Saladin Takes Jerusalem: The Crusades.
In an assembly of churchmen called by Pope Urban II met at Clermont, France. Unique online map games for the Middle East - hear the names of Middle Eastern countries and capitals pronounced.
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