A Formula for the Perfect Position Paper: As a young and eager new delegate, I used to put all of my effort into writing a perfect position paper, spending weeks compiling every fact I could about the topics.
The Task Force is organized around four distinct teams that include: Currie; alternative financing mechanisms, led by John J. Sandy, building state capability, directed by Michael B. Cook, and streamlining the grants process, headed by Harvey G. Their expertise in environmental finance was essential to our efforts and we would like to acknowledge them individually: Steve Goldsmith " - Mr.
The AFM team addressed the fiscal constraints that hamper the ability of states and localities to finance environmental protection. They recognized the need for a document that provides information aimed at resolving two types of funding shortfalls: They decided to produce a comprehensive encyclopedia of alternative financing mechanisms that could be used as an information resource for states and local governments.
To make it "user-friendly," the team developed a format to furnish the information in a uniform fashion.
For each of the eleven AFM categories with the exception of the Miscellaneous and EFC categoriesthe findings note comparative advantages and disadvantages, outline the circumstances under which the AFMs in a particular category might prove useful, and provide concrete examples illustrating the funding needs for which a given category might be appropriate.
At the state and local level, the team recommended that states and localities conduct a study of their financing needs that would identify areas of actual or potential shortfall, and examine their current financing mechanisms to determine which categories of AFMs are not already being used.
The governments could then use the information about AFMs provided by the compendium, as well as their own assessments of the viability of an AFM in their jurisdiction, to select a financing mechanism that will meet their needs.
It is essential to assemble the wealth of information on environmental finance and make it available to states and localities through key points of distribution. With this in mind, the following outreach strategies are recommended: As an example, in October,EPA's Office of Water led the way in disseminating financial information to public entities by opening the Environmental Financing Information Network EFINwhich provides information on financing alternatives for state and local environmental programs and projects.
The Agency should also provide publications and other types of technical assistance on environmental finance. For example, EPA could provide technical assistance on establishing certain types of AFMs, or operate a peer match service.
EFC activities could include education, technical assistance, and research on environmental finance on a regional level.
Increasingly, however, the responsibility of implementing, administering and enforcing federally mandated environmental programs has shifted to the states. This trend places a growing financial burden on state and local governments at a time when the gap is widening between the cost of environmental protection and available resources.
To meet this financial challenge, new alternative sources of revenue and capital must be found to finance environmental programs. Compared with the U. By the yearenvironmental expenditures are projected to rise to 2. The gap between current resources and the investments needed to maintain existing standards and meet new requirements is increasing.
At the local level, the funding gap is even more dramatic. In all, communities may need to spend 83 percent more per year by the year Even if state and local governments could borrow enough to pay for capital investments, annual cash flow requirements to repay their debts will outstrip their financial capacity.
Between now and the end of the century, local governments will need to raise 32 percent more money to cover operating and debt service costs.
This amounts to an increase in cash requirements of over 3. Yet over the same period, U. GNP is 1 U. Environmental Finance in the s, Progress Report revisedMay The growing competition among programs for funding from general revenues and the fact that the economic downturn threatens even general revenue levels means that state and local governments are forced to develop additional sources of funding to pay for their share of environmental costs.
Uncertain state economies and increasing budget deficits threaten existing environmental programs as newly promulgated federal requirements compete for limited funds and reduced staffing resources.
Financial pressures impose numerous constraints on state environmental programs and investments.Like all the other transition words and phrases that are used to combine and connect ideas in writing, conclusion transition words show logical relationships between ideas and sentences.
More specifically, these transitional words convey a conclusion, a summary, or a restatement of ideas. Transitions between paragraphs: If you have done a good job of arranging paragraphs so that the content of one leads logically to the next, the transition will highlight a relationship that already exists by summarizing the previous paragraph and suggesting something of the content of the paragraph that follows.
A transition between paragraphs.
When grading position papers, many conferences put up to 50% of the paper’s weight into the proposed solutions section. This means that, for delegates who want research awards or simply want to know where to concentrate their efforts, the best option is the solution-focused heartoftexashop.com this form of position paper, the four general sections still apply, but the paper itself is geared toward.
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