Image of Ardhanarishvara However, in a religious cosmology like Hinduismwhich prominently features female and androgynous deities, some gender transgression is allowed. This group is known as the hijrasand has a long tradition of performing in important rituals, such as the birth of sons and weddings. Despite this allowance for transgression, Hindu cultural traditions portray women in contradictory ways.
In this context, it is essential for those concerned with policy and legislation on alcohol to have a clear understanding of the sociocultural functions and meanings of drinking.
This section outlines the principal conclusions that can be drawn from the available cross-cultural material regarding the symbolic uses of alcoholic beverages, the social functions of drinking-places and the roles of alcohol in A comparison study of masculinity and and celebratory rituals. Symbolic roles From the ethnographic material available, it is clear that in all cultures where more than one type of alcoholic beverage is available, drinks are classified in terms of their social meaning, and the classification of drinks is used to define the social world.
Alcohol is a symbolic vehicle for identifying, describing, constructing and manipulating cultural systems, values, interpersonal relationships, behavioural norms and expectations.
Choice of beverage is rarely a matter of personal taste. Situation definer At the simplest level, drinks are used to define the nature of the occasion. In the Weiner Becken in Austria, sekt is drunk on formal occasions, while schnapps is reserved for more intimate, convivial gatherings - the type of drink served defining both the nature of the event and the social relationship between the drinkers.
Even in societies less bound by long-standing traditions and customs, where one might expect to find a more individualistic, subjective approach to the choice of drinks, the social meanings of different beverages are clearly defined and clearly understood. A US survey Klein, examined perceptions of the situational appropriateness of various types of alcoholic drink, finding that wine, but not spirits or beer, is considered an appropriate accompaniment to a meal; wine and spirits, but not beer, are appropriate drinks for celebratory events, while beer is the most appropriate drink for informal, relaxation-oriented occasions.
In cultures with a more established heritage of traditional practices, perceptions of situational appropriateness may, however, involve more complex and subtle distinctions, and rules governing the uses of certain classes of drink are likely to be more rigidly observed.
In France, for example, the aperitif is drunk before the meal, white wine is served before red, brandy and digestifs are served only at the end of the meal and so on Clarisse, ; Nahoum-Grappe, Among Hungarian Gypsies, equally strict rules apply to brandy: It would be regarded as highly inappropriate to serve or drink brandy outside these specific situational contexts Stewart, Status indicator Choice of beverage is also a significant indicator of social status.
In France, by contrast, where wine-drinking is commonplace and confers no special status, the young elite are turning to often imported beers McDonald, ; Nahoum-Grappe, Preference for high-status beverages may be an expression of aspirations, rather than a reflection of actual position in the social hierarchy.
There may also be a high degree of social differentiation within a single category of beverage. Purcell notes that in Ancient Rome, wine was not simply the drink of the elite: Wine was, and is today in many cultures, "a focus of eloquent choices".
Certain drinks, for example, have become symbols of national identity: Guinness for the Irish, tequila for Mexicans, whisky for Scots, ouzo for Greeks etc. In other words, the older peasant drinks cider; the younger person outside agriculture opts for beer.
It is, however, too soon to tell whether their current habits will persist into maturity Gamella, During their traditional cactus-wine ceremonies, the Papago of Mexico frequently became "falling-down drunk"- indeed, it was common practice among the more dandyish young men of the tribe to paint the soles of their feet with red dye, so that when they fell down drunk the attractive colour would show.
Yet the drunken behaviour of the Papago on these occasions was invariably peaceful, harmonious and good-tempered. These "two types of drinking" co-existed until the white man, in his wisdom, attempted to curb the ill-effects of alcohol on the Papago by banning all drinking, including the still-peaceful wine ceremonies.
Prohibition failed, and the wine ceremonies eventually became indistinguishable, in terms of behaviour, from the secular whiskey-drinking. Need for further research As with many other areas covered in this review, information on the symbolic meanings of different types of alcoholic drink is scattered, disjointed and incomplete, usually buried in research focused on other issues.Hofstede: Masculinity / Femininity.
This dimension focuses on how extent to which a society stress achievement or nurture. Masculinity is seen to be the trait which emphasizes ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles. Public and international discourse on the debate for gender equality focuses on the oppression of women, as it rightly should.
However, the influence that traditional male stereotypes have on the perpetuation of gender inequality, at a transnational scale, also needs to be addressed. Study of the history of masculinity emerged during the s, aided by the fields of women's and (later) gender history.
Before women's history was examined, there was a "strict gendering of the public/private divide"; regarding masculinity, this meant little study of how men related to the household, domesticity and family life. Nov 07, · When the world looks at the United States, it sees a land of exceptions: a time-tested if noisy democracy, a crusader in foreign policy, an exporter of beloved music and film.
Understanding Cultures & People with Hofstede Dimensions September 4, by Anastasia 3. 3. Understanding Cultures & People with Hofstede Dimensions; The theory of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions constitutes a framework revolving around cross-cultural communication, which was devised by Geert Hofstede.
a case study of . neither clearly masculine nor clearly feminine in appearance: the androgynous look of many rock stars. Botany. having staminate and pistillate flowers in the same inflorescence.